Computer Glossary – Computers have a big impact on our daily lives. Students, businessmen, website designers, digital marketers, etc. are dealing with computers every day. There are many glossaries of the computer, and it includes various concepts, words, and terminologies. Each component of the computer is very difficult to understand, so in this article, we have brought you the complete list of the computer glossary [Computer basic terminologies]. And you can download the computer glossary PDF below. Read: A to Z computer Abbreviations.
1. Access Time – The time interval between the instance at which data is called from a storage device and the instance when delivery begins.
2. Accumulator – A local storage area called a register, in which the result of an arithmetic and logic operation is formed.
3. Active Cell – It refers to the currently selected cell in a spreadsheet. It can be identified by a bold outline that surrounds the cells.
4. Active Window – It is the currently focused window in the current window manager.
5. Algorithm – In computing, an algorithm is a procedure for accomplishing some tasks which given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state.
6. Alphanumeric – A character set that contains letters, digits, and other special characters such as @, $, +, %, etc.
7. Analog Computer – A computer that operates on data which is in the form of continuous variable physical quantities.
8 . Animation – It is the process of making the illusion of motion and change by means of the rapid display of a sequence of static images that minimally differ from each other.
9. Antivirus – It consists of computer programs that attempt to identify threats and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (malware).
10. Application Software – It is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform,
11. Archive-It provides backup storage.
12. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) – It is a part of the execution unit, a core component of all CPUs. ALUS is capable of calculating the results of a wide variety of basic arithmetical and logical computations.
13. Artificial Intelligence – Fifth generation compuțing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
14. ASCII – (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) It is a character set and a character encoding based on the Roman alphabet as used in Modern English and other Western European languages.
15. Assembler – A program that translates mnemonic statements into executable instruction.
16. Attribute – The characteristics of an entity are called its attributes. Authentication Any process by which a system verifies the identity of the user who wants to access it.
17. Auxiliary Memory – It is also known as secondary memory that is not directly addressable by the CPU.
1. Backspace Key – This key is used to delete the text. Backspace will delete the text to the left of the cursor.
2.Backup – A copy of a file or other item of data made in case the original is lost and damaged.
3. Bandwidth – The maximum amount of data that can travel in a communication path in a given time, measured in bits per second (bps).
4. Bar Code – It is machine-readable information in a visual format on a surface.
5. Batch File – It is a text file that contains a sequence of commands for a computer operating system.
6. Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) – A coding system in which a 4 digit binary number represents each decimal digit from 0 to 9.
7. Bit – It is the most basic information unit used in V computing and information theory.
8. Blog – It is a discussion or informational site published on the world wide web.
9. Bomb – A type of virus designed to activate at a specific date and time on your computer.
10. Bluetooth – It permits a wireless exchange of information between computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices.
11. Booting – It is a bootstrapping process that starts the operating system when a computer is switched ON.
12. Browser – A special software that enables users to read/view Web pages and jump from one Web page to another.
13. Buffering – The process of storing data in a memory device, allowing the devices to change the data rates, perform error checking, and error retransmission.
14. Bug – It is an error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program or system that produces an incorrect or unexpected result.
15. Bus – A circuit that provides a communication path between two or more devices of a digital computer system.
16. Byte – It is commonly used as a unit of storage measurement in computers, regardless of the type of data being stored.
1. Cell – A box in a spreadsheet, in which you can enter a single piece of data.
2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) – It performs the actual processing of data. The CPU is generally called by its generic name ‘Processor’, Which is also known as the brain of the computer.
3. Channel – A communication channel can be a physical link, such as a cable that connects two stations in a network or it can consist of some electromagnetic transmission.
4. Chatting – Typing text into a message box on a screen to engage in dialog with one or more people via the Internet or other network. Chip – A tiny wafer of silicon-containing miniature electric circuits that can store millions of bits of information.
5. Client-Server – It is a network architecture that separates the client from the server. Each instance of the client software can send requests to a server or application server.
6. Command – It is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of some kind, in order to perform a specific task. Compile – It is the process of converting high-level languages to machine language.
7. Compiler – It is a computer program that translates a series of instructions from high-level language to machine language.
8. Cookie – A packet of information that travels between a browser and the webserver.
9. Communication Protocol – It is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information. Computer Network – It is a system for communication among two or more computers.
10. Computer Graphics – These are visual presentations on a computer screen. Examples are photographs, drawings, line arts, graphs, or other images.
11. Control Panel – It is the part of the Windows menu, accessible from the Start menu, which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls.
12. Computer Worm – It is a self-replicating computer program, similar to a computer virus.
13. Control Unit – It is the part of a CPU that directs its operation. The outputs of this unit control the activity of the rest of the device. Crawler – It is an Internet bot that systematically browses the world wide web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing. It is also called a Web spider.
14. Cryptography – The conversion of data into a secret code for transmission over a public network.
15. Cut – To remove an object from a document.
1. Data – It is a collection of facts and figures which are not indirectly usable form.
2. Database – It is a collection of logically related information in an organized way so that it can be easily accessed, managed, and updated.
3. Data Entry – Direct input of data in the appropriate data fields of a database known as data entry.
4. Database Management System (DBMS) – It is a collection of various programs. It provides a systematic way to create, retrieve, update and manage data.
5. Data Processing – Converting data into information is called data processing.
6. Data Redundancy – It is a condition created within a database or data storage technology in which the same piece of data is held in two separate places.
7. Debugging – A methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects is known as debugging.
8. Degree – The number of fields associated with the database table or relation.
9. Desktop Publishing (DTP) – It combines a personal computer, page layout software, and a printer to create publications on a small economic scale.
10. Display Unit – A device with a screen that displays characters or graphics representing data in computer memory.
11. Device Driver – It is a computer program that enables another program, typically, an operating system to interact with a hardware device.
12. Dial-up Line – A line through which communication established. Digital Computer – A computer that operates with numbers expressed directly as digits.
13. Direct Access – It is the capability of the computer equipment to obtain data from a storage device.
14. Directory– In computing, a directory is an entity in a file system that contains a group of files and other directories.
15. Domain Name – A unique name that identifies a particular Website and represents the name of the server where the Web pages reside. Dots Per Inch (DPI) – It is defined as the measure of the resolution of a printer, scanner, or monitor. It refers to the number of dots in a one-inch line.
16. Download – It refers to the act of transmitting data from a remote computer on the Internet or other network to one’s own computer. Drag and Drop – In the computer graphical user interface, drag and drop is the action of clicking on a virtual object and dragging it to a different location or onto another virtual object.
17. DVD – It is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage including movies with high-quality video and sound. Dynamic RAM – DRAM is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor.
1. EBCDIC – (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) It is an 8-bit character encoding used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like Z/OS, S/390, AS/400 and i5/OS.
2. E-Commerce – Electronic commerce is a type of industry where buying and selling of products or services are conducted over electronic systems such as the Intranet and another computer network.
3. Editing – The process of changing information by inserting, deleting, replacing, rearranging, and reformation.
4. Electronic Data Processing (EDP) – A data o processing through equipment that is predominantly electronic such as a digital computer. Electroníc mail – E-mail is a method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
5. Encryption – In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that hackers cannot read them, but the authorized users can access them.
6. End User – Any individual who uses the information generated by a computer-based system.
7. Entity – It is something that has certain attributes or properties which may be assigned values.
8. Error Message – It is the information displayed when an unexpected condition occurs usually on a computer or other device.
9. Excel – It allows users to create spreadsheets much like paper ledgers that can perform automatic calculations.
10. Exe – (.exe) It is a common filename extension denoting an executable file (a program) in the DOS, MS-Windows.
11. Execution Time – The total time required to execute a program on a particular system.
12. Expansion Slot – It is a socket on the motherboard that is used to insert an expansion card which provides additional features to a computer.
13. Extranet – A technology that permits the users of one organization’s Intranet to enter portions of another organization’s Intranet in order to conduct business transactions or collaborate on joint projects.
1. Fax – It stands for ‘Facsimile’. It is used to transmit a copy of a document electronically.
2. Field – The attributes of an entity are written as fields in the table representation.
3. File – A collection of information stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer. Every file must have its own distinctive name.
4. File Allocation Table (FAT) – It is the name of a computer file system architecture. The FAT file system is a legacy file system that is simple and robust.
5. File Manager – It is an operating system utility that provides a user interface to work with file systems.
6. Firewall – A security system usually consisting of hardware and software that prevents unauthorized persons from accessing certain parts of a program database or network.
7. Flowcharts – These are the means of visually Reno) representing the flow of data through an information processing system, the operations performed within the system, and the sequence in which they are performed.
8. Foreign Key – A field in a database table, which links it to another related table. Format To set margins, tabs, font, or line spacing in the layout of a document.
9. FORTRAN – Its name stands for formula translating system. The language was designed at IBM for scientific computing.
10. Freeware – A form of software distribution where the author retains the copyright of the software but makes the program available to others at no cost.
11. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – This protocol is used to transfer files from one place to another on the Internet.
12. Function Key – A special key on a computer keyboard or a terminal device’s keyboard that is used to perform specific functions. Many keyboards have function keys labeled from F1 to F12.
1. Garbage In Garbage Out (GIGO) – It pertains to the fact that most computer errors are not machine errors, they are data errors caused by incorrect input data.
2. Gateway – A device that is used to join together two networks having different base protocols.
3. Gigabyte (GB) – It is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one billion bytes.
4. Gigahertz (GHz) – A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit. One n gigahertz is equal to 1 billion cycles per second.
5. Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) – A simple file format for pictures and photographs, that are compressed so they can be sent quickly.
6. Graphic Tablet – It is an input device that is used to create images, etc.
7. Graphical User Interface (GUI) – It is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulating of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.
1. Hacker – A computer criminal who penetrates and tempers with computer programs or systems.
2. Hang – To crash in such a way that the computer does not respond to input from the keyboard or mouse.
3. Hard Copy – It is a printed copy of information from a computer. Hard Disk – It is a non-volatile data storage device that stores data on a magnetic surface layered onto disk platters.
4. Hardware – The mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical components that comprise a computer system such as CPU, monitor, keyboard, mouse, etc.
5. High-Level Programme language – it is a programming language that is more user-friendly, to some extent platform-independent, and abstract from low-level computer processor operation such as memory accesses.
6. Home page– A starting point or doorway to the Website. It refers to the web page that identifies a website and contains that hyperlink to another web page on the website.
7. Host Computer – A computer that provides information or service to other computers on the internet. Every host computer has its own unique hostname.
8. Hub – A network device that connects multiple computers on a LAN, so that they can communicate with one another.
9. Hybrid Computer – These computers are made by taking the best features of the analog computer and digital computer.
10. Hyperlink – An image or portion of text on a Web page that is linked to another Web page.
11. HyperText Markup Language – It stands for HTML. It is mainly used for designing Websites.
12. HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) – It is an important protocol used on the world wide web for moving hypertext files across the Internet.
1. Icon – A symbol (such as a picture or a folder) that represents a certain function on your computer. When the user clicks on the icon, the appropriate function is executed.
2. Information – It is the summarization of data according to a certain pre-defined purpose.
3. Input – In order to give instructions to a computer, the information has to be supplied to it.
4. Instant Messaging (IM) – A chat program that lets people communicate over the Internet in real-time.
5. Instruction – A command or order was given to a computer to perform a task.
6. Interface – A device or program that helps a user to communicate with a computer.
7. Interpreter – A program that converts and executes the source code into machine code line by line.
8. Internet – A vast computer network linking smaller computer networks worldwide.
9. Internet Surfing – To search for something on the Internet is called Internet surfing.
8. Internet Service Provider (ISP) – It is a business organization that offers users to access the Internet and related services.
9. Integrated Circuits – Multiple electronic components combined on a silicon chip.
10. Java – A programming language, used to create mobile applications, software, etc.
12. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) – It is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital photography.
13. Joystick – It is a computer peripheral or general control device consisting of a handheld stick that pivots about one end and transmits its angle in two or three dimensions to a computer.
1. Kernel – It is the fundamental part of a program, such as an operating system, that resides in memory at all times.
2. Keyboard – This is the standard input device attached to all computers. The layout of the keyboard is just like the traditional typewriter of the type QWERTY.
3. KeyStroke – It is the process of pressing the button on the keyboard.
4. Kilobyte (KB) – It is a unit of information or computer storage equal to 1024 bytes.
1. LAN (Local Area Network) – In LAN, the connected computers are geographically close together. They are either in the same building or within a smaller area.
2. Laptop – It is a small, lightweight, and portable battery-powered computer that can fit onto your lap. They each have a thin, flat, and liquid crystal display screen.
3. Light Pen – A light-sensitive style for touching coordinates on a display screen, thereby seeming to draw directly on the screen.
4. Link – A communication path between two nodes or channels. LINUX – It is an open-source operating system, meaning that the source code of the operating system is freely available to the public.
5. List Processing (LISP) – A high-level programming language suitable for handling logical operations and non-numeric applications.
6. Log In – It is the process by which an individual gains access to a computer system by identifying and authenticating themselves. Log Off – It is a process of withdrawal from function after performing the program.
7. Low-Level Language – It is an assembly language that is used in computers. It was mostly used in first-generation computers.
1. Machine Language – The language of the computer also called binary language. Instructions in this language are written as a sequence of 0’s and 1’s.
2. Main Memory – A volatile and speedy memory. It is divided into two parts RAM and ROM.
4. Mass Storage – It is referred to as storage where large t volumes of backup/data are stored.
5. Megabyte (MB) – 1 Megabyte is equal to 1048576 bytes, usually rounded off to one million bytes. It is also called a ‘meg’.
6. Memory – Temporary storage for information, including applications and documents.
7. Menu Bar – The horizontal strip across the top of an application’s window. Each word on the strip has a context-sensitive drop-down menu containing features and actions that are available for the application in use.
8. Merge – Combining two or more files into a single file. Microcomputer – A microprocessor-based computer, consisting of a CPU, internal semiconductor memory, input and output sections, and a system bus, all on one, or several monolithic IC chips inserted into one or several PC boards.
7. Microprocessor – A complete Central Processing Unit (CPU) contained on a single silicon chip.
8. MIDI (Music Instrument Digital Interface) – It allows a computer to store and replay a musical instrument’s output.)
9. Minicomputer – Considered to be more capable than a microcomputer but less powerful than a mainframe.
10. Mnemonic – A symbolic label or code remainder that assists the user in remembering a specific operation or command in assembly language.
11. Modem (Modulator/Demodulator) – It refers to specific equipment that provides a means of communication between two computer systems over conventional telephone lines.
12. Monitor – The visual readout device of a computer system. A monitor can be in several forms; a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), or a flat-panel, full-color display. Multitasking – It can simultaneously work with several programs or interrelated tasks that share memories, codes, buffers, and files.
13. Multithreading – It is a facility available in an operating system that allows multiple functions from the same application packages. Multimedia – Software programs that combine text and graphics with sound, video, and animation. A multimedia PC contains the hardware to support these capabilities.
1. Network – It is an interconnection of two or more two computers.
2. Network Interface Card (NIC) – This is a part of the computer that allows it to talk to other computers via a network protocol like TCP/IP.
3. Nibble – A sequence of four adjacent bits, or this half-byte. Hexadecimal or BCD-coded digit can be represented by a nibble. Node – The endpoint of a network branch or the ls junction of two or more branches.
4. Non-Volatile Memory – A memory where stored data remain undisturbed by the removal of electrical power.
5. Notebook – A portable computer, that can fit into a briefcase. It is used as a personal computer. It is also called a laptop.
1. Object – Something that contains both the data and the application that operate on that data.
2. Offline – It refers to the state in which a computer is temporarily or permanently unable to communicate with another computer.
3. Online – It refers to the state of being connected to the networked computer system or the Internet.
4. Operating System – A set of instructions that tells a computer how to operate when it is turned ON. It sets up a filing system to store files and tells the oo computer how to display information on a video display.
5. Output – Data that comes out of a computer device.
6. Patch – A small program that improves an existing piece of software or corrects an error in it.
7. Personal Computer (PC) – A single-user computer containing a Central Processing Unit (CPU) and one or more memory circuits. Piracy – The illegal copying of software or other creative works. Pixels – An acronym derived from picture element. The smallest element (a dot) on a display screen.
8. Plug-In This is a program that your browser uses to manipulate a downloaded file.
9. Portrait – A term that designates the position of conventional printing across the width of a page.
10. Post Office Protocol (POP) – A protocol that it specifies how a personal computer can connect to a mail server on the Internet and download E-mail.
11. Primary Key – It is a key that uniquely identifies each tuple or row in a table.
12. Process – A collection of code, data, and other system resources including at least one thread of execution that performs a data processing task.
13. program – A set of instructions to perform a specific task.
14. Programming Language – A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to b perform specific tasks.
15. Printer – A mechanical device for printing a computer’s output on paper.
16. Protocol – A set of rules that define exactly how information is to be exchanged between two systems over the Internet.
17. Pseudocode – It is a shorthand way of describing a computer program.
1. Query – A request for information from a database.
1. Random Access Memory (RAM) – A volatile, semiconductor storage structure that accesses temporary data with a random or direct accessing method. Data in this memory can be read by the CPU directly.
2. Read-Only Memory (ROM) – A semiconductor memory whose data cannot be erased, or overwritten; it can only be accessed (read) for use by the CPU.
3. Record – A collection of all the information pertaining to a particular entity instance.
4. Register – A temporary storage unit for quick, direct accessibility of a small amount of data for processing.
5. Remote Server – A network computer that allows a user on the network from a distant location to access information.
6. Router – A network device that enables the network to reroute messages it receives that are intended for other networks. The network with the router receives the message and sends it on its way exactly as received.
7. Routing – The process of choosing the best path throughout the LAN.
1. Scanner – An electronic device that uses light-sensing equipment to scan paper images such as text, photos, illustrations and translate the images into signals that the computer can then store, modify, or distribute.
2. Search Engine – Software that makes it possible to, look for and retrieve information on the Internet, particularly the Web. Some popular search engines are AltaVista, Google, Bing, HotBot, Yahoo!, Web Crawler, and Lycos.
3. Sector – A section of a recording track on a magnetic disk. Sequential Access – It is a class of data storage devices that reads stored data in a sequence.
4. Server – A computer that shares its resources and information with other computers on a network.
5. Shareware – A software that is not free but is available for a free trial period.
6. Simplex – Transmission of data in one direction only.
7. Software – The set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation related to the effective operation. Source Code – (Source Program) A set of computer instructions in hard-copy or stored form.
8. Spam – Irrelevant or unsolicited messages sent over the Internet, typically to large numbers of users, for the purpose of advertising, phishing, spreading malware, etc.
9. Spreadsheet – Software that allows one to calculate numbers in a format that is similar to pages in a conventional ledger.
10. Static RAM – It is a type of RAM, that contains its contents only whenever the current supply is ON.
11. Sub Program – A particular part of a program that completes the special work.
12. Supercomputer – The largest mainframe computer featuring exceptionally high-speed operation while manipulating huge amounts of information.
1. TCP/IP – (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) This is a large grouping of programs and standards that govern how information moves around the Internet.
2. Terabyte (TB) – it is about a trillion bytes.
3. Terminal – this is what you look at when you are on the internet It’s your computer screen.
4. Time-Sharing – It refers to the allocation of computer resources in a time-dependent fashion to run several programs simultaneously. Topology – The structure of the network including physical connection such as wiring schemes and logical interactions between network devices.
5. Trackball – Input device that controls the position of the cursor on the screen.
1. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) – The specific Internet address for a resource such as an individual or an organization.
2. Unix – This is an operating system developed by AT & T. It is a big push that allows one server to serve many different end-users at one time.
3. Upgrade – The process of improving hardware and software functionality.
4. Upload – The processes of transferring information from a computer to a Website (or other remote p location on a network).
5. UPS – (Universal Power Supply or Uninterruptible Power Supply) An electrical power supply that includes a battery to provide enough power to a computer during an outage to back-up data and properly shut down.
6. User – A person who uses or operate something.
7. User-Friendly – A software program that has been designed to easily direct the user through the operation or application of a program.
1. Validation – The process of making sure that the forms and documents from a particular transaction are correct.
2. Video Teleconferencing – A remote ‘face-to-face chat,’ when two or more people using a webcam and an Internet telephone connection chat online. The webcam enables both live voice and video.
3. Virus – A piece of computer code designed as a prank or malicious act to spread from one computer to another by attaching itself to other programs.
4. Volatile Memory – A memory whose contents are irretrievably lost when power is removed. If data in RAM must be saved after power shutdown, back-up in non-volatile memory (magnetic disk, tape, or CD-R) is essential.
1. Website – A collection of web pages or hyperlinked webpages owned by an individual, company, or organization.
2. Window – A portion of a computer display used in a graphical interface that enables users to select commands by pointing to illustrations or symbols with a mouse.
3. Wide Area Network (WAN) – It is a telecommunication network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance. Word Processor – A computer system or program for setting, editing, revising, correcting, storing, and printing text.
4. World Wide Web (‘WwW’ or The Web’) – A network of servers on the Internet that use hypertext-linked databases and files. It was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist, and is now the primary platform of the Internet.
5. Workgroup – Persons sharing files and data between themselves.
6. Workstation – The work area and/or equipment used for computer operations, including Computer-Aided Design (CAD). The equipment generally consists of a monitor, keyboard, printer and/or plotter, and other output devices.
1. X-Y Plotter – A computer-driven printing mechanism that draws coordinate points in graph form.
2. ZOOM – The enlarging or reducing an image displayed on a computer process of proportionately monitor.
3. ZIP (Zone Information Protocol) – This is an application that allows for the compression of application files.
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